Sleep is often neglected because students, professionals, and stay-at-home parents get busier by the day. However, our time for sleeping means allowing our bodies and minds to rest, recover, and recharge after a long, stressful day.
Unfortunately, for those who have been through traumatic events, quality sleep can be quite challenging, and maybe even elusive. The relationship between trauma and sleep difficulties is well-documented and supported by studies, and the acknowledgement and the right understanding of this connection is crucial not only for those experiencing sleep issues but also their loved ones.
The Relationship Between Trauma and Sleep Difficulties
Any distressing or disturbing experience that causes a significant shift in someone’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours can be considered trauma, and this shift can even include the way people sleep – how deep, how long, what type, and which times of the day. It’s widely known that trauma is strongly associated with sleep difficulties.
Those who have been through traumatic events in the past tend to experience higher rates of insomnia, nightmares, sleep disturbances, and other sleep-related disorders. This connection between trauma and sleep difficulties brings to light the need for comprehensive approaches to manage and treat both the trauma and its impact on sleep.
What are the Most Common Sleep Difficulties Experienced by Individuals with Trauma?
Those who have trauma often find themselves struggling with a range of sleep difficulties. One of these is insomnia, which is characterized by either trouble falling asleep or staying asleep. In line with this, there are also nightmares and night terrors that can be distressing manifestations of trauma during sleep.
Meanwhile, sleep disturbances like excessive tossing and turning in bed, vivid or intrusive memories, and hyperarousal, are also prevalent. Lastly, sleep-related disorders like restless legs syndrome and sleep apnea, are some of the more prevalent conditions among trauma survivors. These sleep difficulties can significantly impact the quality of life of those who have undergone trauma.
How Does Trauma Impact Sleep Quality?
Trauma has a profound and lasting impact on your sleep quality. Hyperarousal associated with trauma often leads to too much vigilance. In turn you’ll find it harder to relax, fall asleep, and stay asleep all through the night.
Meanwhile, we’ve established that traumatic memories and intrusive thoughts can also disrupt sleep, causing nightmares and night sweats. And to add to this, there’s also the emotional and psychological toll of trauma, which contributes to anxiety and depression.
Both of these conditions can further disrupt your sleep patterns. There’s now a complex interplay between trauma and sleep, and this highlights the need for targeted interventions to address these challenges.
Sleep disturbances are listed as one of the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they can manifest as a direct result of the traumatic experience, as well as a residual symptom of the underlying trauma. To understand this even more, we must recognize sleep difficulties as potential indicators of trauma and seek the appropriate treatment plan.
What are Some Coping Mechanisms for Sleep Difficulties Related to Trauma?
There are various coping mechanisms that can help individuals with sleep difficulties related to trauma. Establishing a consistent sleep routine and creating a relaxing bedtime environment can promote better sleep hygiene.
Another technique that can help is engaging in relaxation techniques. Some of these include deep breathing exercises, meditation, or guided imagery, which can all help calm the mind and prepare you for sleep. Furthermore, avoiding stimulants like caffeine and electronic devices before bedtime is also recommended.
Lastly, you must engage in regular physical exercise, seeking social support, and practicing some stress management techniques can all contribute to better sleep quality – longer, deeper, and properly timed.
Can Therapy Help with Sleep Difficulties Related to Trauma?
Absolutely. Therapy is an invaluable resource for those experiencing trauma-related sleep difficulties. Trauma-focused therapies, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), as well as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), have shown promising results in addressing both trauma and sleep difficulties.
CBT can help those with trauma-related difficulties identify and challenge their unhelpful thought patterns and beliefs that contribute to sleep difficulties, while EMDR is more helpful for processing traumatic memories and eventually reducing their impact on sleep.
When conducted by qualified mental health professionals, these evidence-based therapies can provide those with trauma-related sleep difficulties with tools and strategies that are tailored to their specific needs and concerns. This is done for them to effectively manage their trauma-related sleep difficulties and improve their overall sleep quality.
When it comes to managing and treating sleep difficulties related to trauma, a combination of therapy and self-care practices are often the most effective. Working with a skilled psychologist can provide the clients with a safe space to process their trauma, develop healthy coping mechanisms, and explore strategies to improve sleep.
By addressing the traumatic event through implementing therapeutic techniques, those who suffer from trauma and sleep difficulties can gradually regain control over their sleep and overall well-being.
What Medications are Typically Prescribed for Sleep Difficulties Related to Trauma?
While therapy is a primary avenue for treatment, you must also keep in mind that medication can also be prescribed in certain cases to manage sleep difficulties related to trauma, especially if the mental health professional sees fit.
Psychiatric medications, such as antidepressants or sleep aids, may be considered but within only the prescribed dose and frequency. Meanwhile, clients must also remember that medication should always be approached cautiously, and it must be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that includes therapy and other techniques and strategies.
Are There Any Natural Remedies That Can Help with Sleep Difficulties Related to Trauma?
Yes, there are natural remedies aside from therapy and medication that can complement the treatment of sleep difficulties related to trauma. Some of these practices include mindfulness meditation, relaxation exercises, aromatherapy, and herbal supplements such as chamomile or valerian root.
Do note that while these remedies may offer temporary relief, it’s still crucial to consult with a healthcare professional or a qualified naturopath to ensure their safety and effectiveness.
Can Sleep Difficulties Related to Trauma Be Resolved Over Time?
Resolving sleep difficulties related to trauma takes time and patience. Each client’s journey toward healing is unique, and your progress can’t be compared to anybody else’s progress.
But you shouldn’t worry, as the right support, treatment, and self-care practices can fast-track your improvements in your sleep patterns and overall well-being. Lastly, you must also maintain realistic expectations and continue seeking professional help as needed.
How Can Their Loved Ones Support Those with Sleep Difficulties Related to Trauma?
If you have a loved one experiencing sleep difficulties related to trauma, your support, and understanding can make a significant difference. Offer a listening ear, encourage them to seek professional help, and educate themselves about trauma and its effects on sleep.
Be patient, as recovery takes time, and remind them that they are not alone in their journey. By being present and supportive, you can help create a safe and nurturing environment for their healing.
Helping You with Trauma and Sleep Difficulties
Trauma and sleep difficulties are intricately linked, with trauma often leading to disruptive sleep patterns and sleep-related disorders. However, there are effective strategies and treatments available to help individuals manage and overcome these challenges.
Through high quality therapy, self-care practices, and the support of loved ones, individuals can take steps toward restoring healthy sleep and finding healing from their traumatic experiences. Seeking professional psychological help from our professionals can provide valuable guidance and resources to navigate this journey toward better sleep and overall well-being.
Author Joanna Jeffers, M.A., C.Psych.